This Page is dedicated to the years of our American History which immediately preceded and subsequently followed the American Revolution.
"Strength & Honor"... Enjoy!

Quotes & Letters:

"Freedom of speech is a principal pillar of a free government; when this support is taken away, the constitution of a free society is dissolved, and tyranny is erected on its ruins."
   ~ Benjamin Franklin (Pennsylvania Gazette, 17 November 1737)

“Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety.”
   ~ Benjamin Franklin (for the Pennsylvania Assembly in its Reply to the Governor, 11 November 1755)

“Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.”
~ George Washington (Letter of Instructions to the Captains of the Virginia Regiments, 29 July 1759)

“The jaws of power are always open to devour, and her arm is always stretched out, if possible, to destroy the freedom of thinking, speaking, and writing.”
~ John Adams (Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law, 1765)

"The truth is, all might be free if they valued freedom, and defended it as they ought."
   ~ Samuel Adams (Essay in the Boston Gazette, 14 October 1771)

“Unless, by a neglect of military discipline, we should lose all martial spirit... we may expect the same oppressions; for there is much truth in the Italian saying, ‘Make yourselves sheep, and the wolves will eat you’.”
   ~ Benjamin Franklin (Letter to Thomas Cushing, 1773)

"Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace! But there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the North will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that Gentlemen want? What would they have? Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!  I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
~ Patrick Henry (Speech at the Second Virginia Convention at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia, 23 March 1775)

"There is a certain enthusiasm in liberty, that makes human nature rise above itself in acts of bravery and heroism."
   ~ Alexander Hamilton (The Farmer Refuted, 1775)

"Stand your ground. Don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here."
   ~ Captain John Parker
(To local militia on the Lexington Green, 19 April 1775)

“The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves us only the choice of brave resistance, or the most abject submission. We have, therefore, to resolve to conquer or die.”
   ~ George Washington (Address to the Continental Army before the Battle of Long Island, 27 August 1776)

“The cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.”
~ Thomas Paine (“Common Sense”, 1776)

“In America, the law is king.”
~ Thomas Paine (“Common Sense”, 1776)

“O ye that love mankind! Ye that dare oppose, not only the tyranny, but the tyrant, stand forth!”
~ Thomas Paine (“Common Sense”, 1776)

“THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.”
~ Thomas Paine (“The American Crisis”, No. 1, December 1776)

“Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.”
~ Thomas Paine (“The American Crisis”, No. 1, December 1776)

“The heart that feels not now is dead; the blood of his children will curse his cowardice, who shrinks back at a time when a little might have saved the whole, and made them happy.”
~ Thomas Paine (“The American Crisis”, No. 1, December 1776)

“Let them call me rebel and welcome, I feel no concern from it.”
~ Thomas Paine (“The American Crisis”, No. 1, December 1776)

"Posterity! you will never know how much it cost the present generation to preserve your freedom!"
~ John Adams (Letter to Abigail Adams, 27 April 1777)

"If ever the Time should come, when vain & aspiring Men shall possess the highest Seats in Government, our Country will stand in Need of its experienced Patriots to prevent its Ruin."
   ~ Samuel Adams (Letter to James Warren, 24 October 1780)

“I have not one drop of blood in my veins but what is American.”
~ John Adams (Adams’ Diary, 03 May 1785)

“As to the species of exercise, I advise the gun. While this gives a moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise, and independence to the mind.”
~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to his nephew Peter Carr, 19 August 1785)

"The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.”
   ~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to William Stephens Smith, 13 November 1787)

"Children should be educated and instructed in the principles of freedom."
~ John Adams (Defence of the Constitutions of Government, 1787)

"The militia is a voluntary force not associated or under the control of the States except when called out; a permanent or long standing force would be entirely different in make-up and call."
~ Alexander Hamilton (The Federalist Papers, No. 28, 1787-1788)

“Let us recollect that peace or war will not always be left to our option; that however moderate or unambitious we may be, we cannot count upon the moderation, or hope to extinguish the ambition of others.”
   ~ Alexander Hamilton (The Federalist Papers, No. 34, 1787-1788)

"The President, and government, will only control the militia when a part of them is in the actual service of the federal government, else, they are independent and not under the command of the president or the government.”
   ~ Alexander Hamilton (The Federalist Papers, No. 69, 1787-1788)

“Guard with jealous attention the public liberty. Suspect every one who approaches that jewel.”
~ Patrick Henry (Speech on the Federal Constitution, Virginia Ratifying Convention, 05 June 1788)

“Happiness and moral duty are inseparably connected.”
   ~ George Washington (Letter to Clergy in general Convention assembled, 19 August 1789)

“To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace".
     ~ George Washington (First Annual Address, to both Houses of Congress, 08 January 1790)

"A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined; to which end, a uniform and well digested plan is requisite: and their safety and interest require that they should promote such manufactories as tend to render them independent on others for essential, particularly for military supplies".
     ~ George Washington
(First Annual State of the Union Address, 08 January 1790)

“I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty, than those attending too small a degree of it.”
~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to Archibald Stuart, Philadelphia, 23 December 1791)

“We confide in our strength, without boasting of it; we respect that of others, without fearing it.”
~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to William Carmichael and William Short , 1793)

“The name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations.”
   ~ George Washington (Farewell Address, 19 September 1796)

"A nation which can prefer disgrace to danger is prepared for a master, and deserves one."  
  ~ Alexander Hamilton (Letter to the Daily Advertiser, 21 February 1797)

“It is infinitely better to have a few good men than many indifferent ones.”
   ~ George Washington (Letter to James McHenry , 10 August 1798)

“In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.”
~ Thomas Jefferson (The Kentucky Resolutions, 16 November 1798)

“United we stand, divided we fall. Let us not split into factions which must destroy that union upon which our existence hangs.”
   ~ Patrick Henry (Last public speech before his death, 04 March 1799)

“The greatest good we can do our country is to heal its party divisions & make them one people. I do not speak of their leaders who are incurable, but of the honest and well-intentioned body of the people.”
~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to John Dickinson, 23 July 1801)

“If we can prevent the government from wasting the labors of the people, under the pretense of taking care of them, they must become happy.”
   ~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to Thomas Cooper, 29 November 1802)

“For a people who are free, and who mean to remain so, a well-organized and armed militia is their best security.”
   ~ Thomas Jefferson (Eighth State of the Union Address, 08 November 1808)

“We are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it.”
   ~ Thomas Jefferson (Letter to William Roscoe, 27 December 1820)

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Slavery & Conquest:

World History of Slavery: The history of slavery spans nearly every culture, nationality, and religion from ancient times to the present day.

Barbary Slave Trade: North African slave markets, that traded in European slaves, flourished between the 16th and 18th centuries (at the 'same time' America was being formed).

The Founding Fathers and Slavery: Although many of the Founding Fathers acknowledged that slavery violated the core American Revolutionary ideal of liberty, their simultaneous commitment to private property rights, principles of limited government, and intersectional harmony prevented them from making a bold move against slavery.

Declaration of Independence (original rough draft) and the First Attempt at Abolition
Transcribed & Handwritten: Jefferson’s original draft of the Declaration of Independence included an entire paragraph calling for the abolition of slavery. However, the Continental Congress knew (at the time) that without the inclusion of the southern colonies - who were profiting greatly from slave labor - the northern colonies alone would never defeat the mighty British Empire. The decision was made that their generation would 'first' win the "fight for freedom" against England, and the 'next' generation would win the same fight against the 'institution of slavery'; which they did - with the Civil War.
(Video Summary & Great Scene)

Early Native Inter-tribal Warfare: Contrary to the popular belief that early tribes of the American continents were non-violent, peace-loving, hippie-like people; historical records & archeological data indicates that warfare & brutality was present for centuries before the arrival of the first Europeans.

War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage
Keeley cogently and persuasively argues that, in fact, war was very much a part of life for "tribal" American peoples of the past; that facts recovered by ethnographers and archaeologists indicate unequivocally that primitive and prehistoric warfare was just as terrible and effective as the historic and civilized version; and devotes an interesting chapter to the reasons underlying the development of the concept of the “pacified past” among Western scholars.